Summary writing

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Write a summary of the following passage within 100 words:

Communication is part of our everyday life. We greet one another, smile or frown, depending on our moods. Animals too, communicate. Just like us, interaction among animals can be both verbal and non-verbal. Singing is one way in which birds can interact with one another. Male blackbirds often use their melodious songs to catch the attention of other blackbirds. These songs are usually rich in notes, encoding various kinds of messages. Songs are also used to keep off other birds from their territory, usually a place where they dwell. Large mammals in the oceans sing too, according to adventurous sailors. Enormous whales groan and grunt while smaller dolphins and porpoises whistle and click. These sounds are surprisingly received by other mates as far as several hundred kilometers away. Besides singing, body language also forms a large part of animals’ communication mode. Dominant hyenas exhibit their power by raising the fur hackles on their necks and shoulders, while the submissive ones normally surrender to the powerful parties by crouching their head low and curling their lips a little, revealing their teeth in friendly smile. Insects such as wasps armed with poisonous bites or stings usually have brightly painted bodies to remind other predators of their power.


Communication is a vital part of our lives and extends to animals too. Just like us, animals use both verbal and non-verbal ways to interact. Birds, such as blackbirds, communicate through melodious songs to attract attention and mark their territory. Large sea creatures like whales emit groans and grunts, while smaller ones like dolphins whistle and click, sending messages to distant mates. Animals also use body language to convey messages; dominant hyenas raise their fur hackles, while submissive ones lower their heads and curl their lips to show respect. Insects like wasps use bright colors to signal their strength. Communication is a universal language shared by all living beings.


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Written by Koushik Kumar Kundu

Koushik Kumar Kundu was among the toppers when he completed his Masters from Vidyasagar University after completing his Bachelors degree with Honours in English Literature from The University of Burdwan. He also completed B.Ed from the University of Burdwan.


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